Enter the field of threshold-controlled nanoelectrochemistry experiments
Measurements of single entities require precision electrochemical electrodes of nano-size and fast, sensitive electronics. The measured results usually reflect the dynamics of a single nano-sized entity in electrochemical charge-transfer processes or mass transfer.
The NDS 10 consists of the Nanobubble Detection Unit NBD 1, the PG 611 USB Ultra-Potentiostat, the software POTMASTER and accessories.
The system allows a high-speed threshold detection (<10 µs) for the investigation of feedback-controlled experiments, e.g. nanobubble formation.
The NBD 1 can be used in combination with an EPC 10 USB Single Patch Clamp Amplifier and PATCHMASTER software as well.
Fields of application
- study of nanobubble nucleation kinetics
- nanoparticles oxidative collision/impact process
- single molecule sensing via solid-state nanopores
- electrocatalysis in nanogap electrodes
- photocurrent detections from single semiconductor nanoparticles
- nano-scale electrodeposition or etching based on threshold signal control
- electrophysiology (e.g. patch-clamp current injection terminated upon threshold control of action potentials)
The NBD 1 resets the stimulus voltage/current after threshold crossing (detection time <10 µs) to zero within less than 50 µs.
It is used in combination with the PG 611 USB Ultra-Potentiostat (or EPC 10 USB Single) for the fast reaction of the electronics upon level crossing.
- externally-powered modular box connected to the potentiostat (amplifier)
- supports signal feedback control in potentiostatic or galvanostatic modesignal response time for NBD 1 <10 µs
- dimensions (L x W x H): 49 x 17 x 14.5 mm / 1.92 x 0.65 x 0.55 inch, without connector
- weight: 24 g
- 3 electrode mode option
The PG 611 USB Ultra-Potentiostat is the preconfigured potentiostat for the Nano Detection System. It uses an external preamplifier for low current – low noise measurements.
- 3 DA Output Channel
- 5 AD Input Channel
- 1 Trigger Input Channel
- 16 Digital In- and Output Channel
- Current Range: 5 pA to 2 µA
- RMS current noise values:
- 31 fA @ 1 kHz
- 72 fA @ 3 kHz
- 120 fA @ 5 kHz
- Voltage Ranges: 1 / 5 V (500 pA to 2 µA) or 1 V (5 pA to 200 pA; High Gain Range)
- Bandwidth (Filter 1): 15 Hz to 100 kHz
- Stimulus Filter: 10 / 100 kHz
- Output Filter (Filter 2): 100 Hz to 10 kHz
The included accessories of the Nano Detection System are:
- a microelectrode holder
- connecting cables
- a counter and a pseudo-reference electrodes
- an electromagnetic shielding cloth
- one license for the acquisition and analysis software POTMASTER.
A software configuration for threshold experiments is delivered together with the setup.
Nanobubble Formation Studies
A featured application of the Nano Detection System is the investigation of nanobubble formation.
The in-depth knowledge of nanobubble formation is of curcial interest for applications where the formation of gaseous bubbles from the liquid phase can occur which might have negative effects on their performance. Energy generating systems are one popular example for this process.
With the Nano Detection System, nanobubble formation can be investigated in high-speed threshold-controlled experiments at nanoelectrodes.
One popular approach is the induction of a galvanostatic current pulse with recording of the potential response. The formation of a nanobubble can be identified by a steep potential decrease (at 88 ms in the figure below) which indicates the blockage of the nanoelectrode surface by the nanobubble. A threshold is predefined to withc the current back to 0 nA once a nanobubble formation has started. By measuring different time intervals from the potential response important data such as nuclei size and nucleation rate can be extracted.
The experiments were performed according to this publication: German, S.R., Edwards, M.A., Ren, H. and White, H.S., 2018. Critical nuclei size, rate, and activation energy of H2 gas nucleation. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 140(11), pp.4047-4053.
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A manual is coming soon.
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